Bailey- pattern- A bevel-down, metal-bodied design of the bench plane.

Bevel down- When the cutting edge is on the bottom side of the blade, facing down towards the workpiece.

Bevel up- When the cutting edge is on the top side of the blade, facing upwards.

Boiled linseed oil- This is used as a finish on wood, it soaks into the pores and grain fibres to protect the surface of the wood which also enhances the appearance of the wood grain.

Important note: Make sure to dry out any rags immediately after use as rags or paper saturated with boiled linseed oil can spontaneously combust.

Chamfered- A corner edge which has been shaped at a consistent sloping angle.

Crosscut/ Ripcut- Different types of saw defined by the two relative tooth patterns. Crosscut tends to be used to cut across the grain and ripcut tend to be used to cut along the grain.

Double-cut- A type of tooth pattern for a file where there are two sets of teeth that are lined up at opposing angles.

Fleam pattern- Another name for ‘crosscut’ saw tooth pattern.

Hone/honing- Can be referring to both the sharpening stones and the process of sharpening.

Kerf- The width of the set teeth.

Pare- Shaving with a chisel using constant pressure from your hand pressure and body weight instead of short strikes with a chisel hammer or mallet.

Pitch- The rake angle at which the saw teeth have been ground and or filed to.

Pointed Snail- Screw threaded spiral tip on the end of a bit, it is the part which draws the wood bit into the wood and must always be used carefully to prevent damage.

Points per inch (PPI) & Teeth per inch (TPI)- There is always one more point per inch than there are teeth per inch, so a saw with 11 PPI has 10 TPI. In these guides we will be using PPI. A higher PPI gives you a smoother finish and a lower PPI gives you a more rough finish. If a saw has lots of teeth (a high PPI) it is usually referred to as having a fine cut and can take longer to cut through wood, wheres if it has less teeth (a lower PPI) it has a medium or coarse cut and can cut through wood quicker.

Skudding- Similar to juddering, when a blade jumps along the wood and causes marks and defects.

Second Cut- A description of how coarse the file is. The smoother the cut, the closer together the teeth are. 3 grades of coarseness in order: Bastard Second Cut Smooth.

Single Cut- Pattern of file teeth, with all the teeth going in the same direction.

Stop Cut Method- Where you crosscut using a saw across the grain then use a chisel along the grain, the split will stop when it reaches subsequent crosscuts (the stop cuts). Main aim is to control where a split finishes otherwise the whole length of wood can split inappropriately.

Strop- A flat block of wood (with leather glued to one side) used to hone and polish the metal of and hand tool blade by abrasion.

Tearout- A rough surface that results from planing against the grain. The wood fibres are torn from the surface instead of severed by the blade.
In some woods the grain changes direction over a short space so there is no ‘correct’ way to plane which is why we would use a scraper instead of a plane.